Friday, February 15, 2008

CAT Exam Paper VII

Directions for questions 1 to 3: In each of the following questions, you are given a complete sentence. Then you are given specific instructions relating to the rewritten sentence with four answer choices 1,2,3,and 4. In rewriting the sentence, make whatever changes the new sentence structure requires without changing the basic meaning of the sentence. Then read the answer choices carefully and select the answer that is best.
1. Sudden changes in the genes of chromosomes may give rise to excellent new varieties of plant. Rewritten:
Excellent new varieties of plants ______ Next words in the rewritten sentence are
may give rise may change with genes or chromosomes may rise
2. Since prehistoric times most of the continent south of the Sahara Desert has been occupied by members of the Negro Race.
Negroes have ________ Somewhere in the part of the written sentence indicated by underline is the word
occupied being race members
3. A good dictionary might be used as an ideal first aid for increasing your command of words. Rewritten:
An ideal way to _______ The next word in the rewritten sentence is
use increasing increase develop
Directions for questions 4 to 0: The sentences are divided into four parts. Select the part which has an error.
4. The number of people who own colour T.V. are increasing every year.
5. Every year nearly 40,000 students appear in the IMS
6. Only after waiting for
one and half hour was I admitted into the great man’s room.
7. Her speech neither brought credit to nor prestige to their country.
8. Together we went to the canteen for having a drink.
9. Never I will understand his intentions.
10. By the by, have you heard from your girl friend recently?
Directions for questions 11 to 17 : in each of these questions, a sentence has been divided into four parts and marked a, b, c, d. One of these parts contains a mistake in grammar idiom or syntax. Identify that part and mark it as the answer.
11. On entering the auditorium,
loud cheers greeted the President
who acknowledged them with a smile
and waved back happily at the gathering.
12. Much of the students
are weak in Mathematics and therefore
the Principal has arranged for special tuition
in the evening after class-hours.
13. I am very sure that if your were me
and had been talked to in a similar manner.
you would also have lost your temper
and talked back as I did.
14. Her Uncle advised her to forget the past,
and stop crying on split milk
and work hard in the future
avoiding the mistakes earlier committed.
15. He declined our offer of help
saying that he is very proud to accept
money from neighbours like us
whom he has known just for a week.
16. Whenever my son brings me a problem in Accounts
I help to solve it because
I have always liked the subject
and also like teaching young children.
17. An extremely versatile student,
good at studies, sports,
the accomplishments of Rajan are worthy of emulation
by all the other students of the class.
Directions for questions 18 to 22: In each of the following sentences four words or phrases have been underlined. Only one underlined part in each sentence is not acceptable in standard English. Pick up the part 1 or 2 or 3 or 4. If there is no mistake mark'5'
18. I am sorry that a previous appointment will prevent me being present at the meeting.
1 2 3 4 5

19. He laid for half an hour in an unconscious state until a cop picked him up.
1 2 3 4 5

20. The journey by train is as quick and perhaps quicker than by car.
1 2 3 4 5
21. He told the members of his staff that every one of them should carry out his task oneself.
1 2 3 4 5
22.This year the monsoons failed which caused a terrible famine in the country.
1 2 3 4 5
Directions for questions 23 to 28: For each question, select the word which has a meaning most nearly opposite to that of the given word.
fat intellectual remorseful recurring
straying evil luxuriant cruel
ancestor scholar simpleton laggard
stubborn vague harmful meek
unjust practical imprudent criminal
rejection slander thirst entrance
Directions for questions 29 to 32: After every pair of words, four choices of other pairs are given. Choose the pair which have very nearly a similar relationship with each other as the given pair.
house : residents paper : printing wood : grain story: theme
modesty : strength cause : purpose mountain: hill see : belief
music : composition novel : plot painting : outline dance : choreography
convict : prison monk : monastery soldier : barracks nun : convent
Directions for questions 33 to 36: Each sentence has one or two blanks, each blank indicating that a word or phrase is missing. From the choices, select the words or phrases which best fit the meaning of the sentence as a whole.
33.Blessed with a _______ face, she proved an ideal model for advertisements for cosmetics.
cursory photogenic star like triangular
34.Credit must go to Indian _______, for developing hybrid varieties which have boosted up foodgrains production.
economists agriculturists agronomists entomologists
35.He is by temperament an _______, and does not mix with people.
ascetic introvert invertebrate expatriate
36.It is ______ that Mahatma Gandhi who always stood for compromise should have been killed violently.
absurd apathetic ridiculous anomalous
Directions for questions 37 to 42: For each question, select the word among the given choices which is closest in meaning to the given word.
column asterisk tomb bone
38. PERT :
curt lively intentional calm
39. STAID :
juicy dull oppressed dirty
precious shining nonsense painful
41. FORAGE :
ancient hunt warning fluency
42. DESCRY :
abuse observe criticize damage

Directions for questions 43 to 47: For each question, select the word which is closest in meaning to the given word.
43. GAWKY:
proud awkward greedy undisciplined
intensify advocate describe marry
tale fault incapability illusion
sacrosanct obscure cheerful transparent.
bottomless eternal external sweet
Directions for questions 48 to 50 : For each question below, select the word among the given choices which is nearly opposite to it in meaning.
48. RAZE:
demolish sleep reconstruct agree
lengthen trespass agree stammer.
faulty unfriendly vulnerable irritating.
51. Find the 75th term of the series 2,6,10,14….
3022 296 299 300
52. Find the sum of series 2,4,6,8…… up to 40 terms
1000 960 1640 1650
53. In how many ways can the face words be equally divided into two groups
482 ways 350 ways 450 ways 462 ways
54. 5 balls have to be placed in 12 boxes, which are divided into 3 rows of equal number of boxes. The ball must be place in such a way that each row contains at least one ball. In how many ways can this be done.
680 492 486 692
55. How many ways are there to race two Dai so that the of the values on the upper force is divisible by 4
11 9 10 12
56. In a race of Bulls chances that A will win are 60%, B will win are 20% and that c will win are 30% what is the possibility that one of them will win.
0.428 0.350 0.488 0.398
57. Akash and Anand throw with two dice. If Ashok throws 11 what is Anands chance of throwing a higher number ?
1/36 2/15 1/12 3/20
58. From 10 books in how many way can a selection of 5 be made, when one specified book is always included
132 ways 126 ways 148 ways 150 ways
59. Referring to the above question find the number of ways a selection can be made if one book is to be always excluded.
126 ways 150 ways 160 ways 190 ways
60. In the given series select the item that does not fit in the series OMN, RPQ, UTS, YWX
61. Spot the odd one in the given series 8,125,512,729
125 8 512 729
62. Find the odd one out from 36, 1 ,81, 27, 64, 125
81 36 1 125
63. Find the odd one 4,1,5,4,7,10
4 10 7 5
64. Find the odd one out CBA, GDE, KHI, OLM
65. Find the odd one out
5800 x 15% 17400 x 5% 174 x 5 870 x 1% (435 x 23) / 22
66. Find the odd one out}
(33) % of 14406 65 2 +22 32 200% of 23770 20% of 23770

67. The population of a town increased by 10% every year for two years and the decrease by 10% every year for two years. If the population just before 4 years was 20,000, what was it after four years
22000 24200 21180 19602
68. At an election a candidate secures 30% of the total votes but is defeated by another candidates by 2100 votes. Find the total number of notes polled
5625 5575 5250 5500
69. The entry fee to an amusement park was Rs.2 . Later this reduced by 50% and the sale increased by 25% Find the % increase in the number of visited
150 % 160% 175% 155%
70. The measure of one side of a rectangle is too long by 6% of its true length and that of the other is short by 10% of its true length. Find the errors percentage in measure obtained for the area of the rectangle
-4.6 % - 2.3% 2.5% 4.6%
71. Between two railway station the I, II and III class fares are in the ratio 10 : 5 : 2 and in an year the ratio of percentage of I, II & III class was 3:4:5 respectively. If the total sale proceeds of the tickets during a year was RS.12000 find the amount for which the ticket of the II class were sold during that year
Rs. 4000 Rs.5000 Rs.4200 Rs.4100
72. 15 horses and 10 cows were brought for Rs. 1500. If the average price of a horse is RS.80 find the average price of a cow.
37 Rs. 40 Rs. 35 Rs. 30 Rs.
73. The average of 11 numbers is 100. If the average of the first 8 in numbers is 98 and that of last six is 104, what is the sixth number ?
84 110 112 100
74. There are 2 similar triangles. The lengths of the sides of one of them are 4 cm, 6cm and 8 cm. If perimeter of the 2nd triangle is 162 cm. Find the length of the corresponding sides of the other triangle
36,54 & 75 25,50 & 80 35,20 & 30 None of these
75. A rainy day occurs once in every 20days. Half of the rainy days produce rainbows. What % of all the days have no rainbows
97.5% 95% 100% 25%
76. Twenty people were invited for a wedding. In how many ways can they and the host be seated at a circular table ?
20 ! 22! 23 ! 15!
77. From 5 different green balls, four different blue balls & 3 different red balls how many combinations of balls can be chosen taking atleast one green and one blue ball.
3720 5270 3270 7200
78. A draper sold 448 meters of cloth, part at 66 paise a metre and the remainder at 90 paise a meter and for the whole received Rs.362.88. How many meteres were sold at 90 paise.
280 m 360 m 140 m 120 m
79. A types a words in b minutes. B types x words in y minutes. The ratio of A’s typing rate to B’s rate is
ay/bx ab/xy ax/by None of these
80. The sum of 2 numbers is 3 times the difference of the 2 nos. If one of the number is 2, in the other is
2 3 1 4
81. A finished 2/5 of a work in 18 days and the remaining work he finished in 9 days with the assistance of B. Find in how many days B alone can finish that work
22 ½ days 24 days 21 days 2 days
82. A takes twice as much time as B and thrice as much as c to finish a piece of work. They together finish the work in one day. Find the time taken by B to finish the work.
3 days 2 days 6 days 5 days
83. In  XYZ, XA = AB = BZ. If the area of  YAZ is 96, what is the area of  XYZ
144 169 136 125
84. Triangle P,Q,R & S are congruent equilateral triangles what can be said about quadrilateral T.
T is a rhombus T is a rectangle T is a square None of these
85. Find area of a triangle whose co-ordinates are (5,2), (-9,-3), and (-3, -5)
29 31 42 36
86. Find the equation of a line, whose slope is 0.5 and passes through a point (3,2).
2y = x+1 2x = y –1 2x = 2y +1 None of these
87. Cost of painting 4 walls of a room 90meters x 40 meters at Rs. 10 per sq.m is RS.13000. Find the height of the room.
5 m 10 m 15 m 12 m
88. The lower part of a tent is a right circular cylinder and its upper part is a right cone. The diameter of the base is 140 m and then total height is 30m and the height of the cylindrical part is 6 m .Find the cost of material at Rs. 20 per sq.m
Rs. 3,78,400 Rs.2,50,000 Rs. 3,45,500 Rs. 3,35,200
89. A right circular cylinder of height 20cm and radius of base 12 cm is taken from this cylinder, a right circular cone of the same ht & base is removed. What will be the volume of the remaining solid.
1920  1260  1290  1395 
90. 3 plots having an area of 132,204 & 228 sq.m respectively are to be subdivided into equalized flower beds. If the breadth of a bed is 36 meters find the maximum length that a bed can have.
2 m 3 m 4 m 5 m
91. Which of the following is the square of a Natural Number
385641 138927 1267543 410882
92. Four bells begin to ring together and ring respectively at interval of 4 ,5,6 and 10 seconds. How many times will they ring together in one hour, including the one at the start
57 62 60 50
93. (0.6)4 – (0.3)4 / (0.6) 2 + (0.3)2 is equal to
1.8 0.18 0.27 2.7

94. If (sqrt 1 + 29/36) = ( 1 + x/14) then the value of x is
2 1 1.5 3
95. For a sphere of radius 20cm, the numerical value of the surface area is how many percent of the numerical value of its volume
15% 30% 10% 20%
96. The average marks obtained by 150 candidates was 40. If the average of passed students was 45 and that of failed student was 20, the number of student who failed in the examination is
60 90 120 30
97. An alloy contains Zinc and nickel in the ratio 2 : 3 and another alloy contains Zinc and
nickel in the ratio 3 : 4. If equal amounts of both the alloy are melted together , then the
ratio of zinc and nickel in the resulting alloy is
4 : 5 29:41 16: 21 39:51
98. Alok started a business with Rs. 12000 and is joined afterward by Arun with Rs 20,000. After how many months did Arun join, if the profit at the end of the year are divided equally.
4 month 3.5 months 3.6 months 4.8 months
99. A can do a piece of work in 36 days if B is 20% more effieicent than A then the number of days required by B to do the work is
25 days 15 days 30 days 20 days
100. One year ago jai and Ajay’s ages was 3 : 4 one year hence the ratio of their ages will be 4 : 5 the present age of jai is
7 years 12 years 15 years 13 years
101. What time will a fast clock show at mid – night on Tuesday ?
I. It was set right at 12 noon on Sunday
II. It loses 4 minutes everyday
1 2 3 4 5
102. How long will it take for the share value of Company A to double itself.
I. The present value of the share is double its value four years back.
II. The present value is Rs 50 and will be Rs. 62.50 next year.
1 2 3 4 5
103. If the present age of my grand mother is 60 years and my age is p. What is P ?
I. Next year my grand father will be 3 times as old as I would be
II. My sister is 4 years younger than me and my grand mother is 3 years younger than my grand father.
1 2 3 4 5
104. What is the salary of Arjun?
I. His salary at present is double Arun’s Salary last year.
II. Aruns salary at present is Rs. 1000
1 2 3 4 5
105. What is the digit in the ten’s place of a number of 2 digits
I. The sum of the digits of the number is 18
II. It digits are interchanged the number remains the same.
1 2 3 4 5
106. How many boys can be manufacture at factory x on the average in a day ?
I. In factory y twice the number of workers make 1000 boys in a day
II. The workers in factory x made 2000 boys in 10 days last month.
1 2 3 4 5
107. What is the price of an orange.
I. 10 oranges and 5 apples cost Rs. 15.
II. 10 apples cost Rs 10
1 2 3 4 5
108. How many lottery tickets did I sell, if the receipt was Rs 30, 000.
I. 200 books were sold
II. One book contains 25% one rupee tickets and 75% two rupee tickets.
1 2 3 4 5
109. What is the perimeter of a Rhombus PQRS
I. Area of PQRS is 160 m 2
II. Diagonal QS is 40 metres
1 2 3 4 5
110. Find the number of books in a bookshop if?
I. The average weight of the books is 1 kg.
II. The weight of the books and the book shop is 90 kgs.
1 2 3 4 5
111. Are a, b, c all positive
I. a + b + c is positive
II. abc is positive
1 2 3 4 5
112. How long will it take for the tank to get felled when taps p and q are opened together assuming that the tank is completely empty initially ?
I. Tap P can fill the tank in 3 hours
II. Tap Q can empty the tank in 4 hours.
1 2 3 4 5
113. Determine the rate of compound interest given by a bank if ?
I. A deposit of Rs 600 becomes Rs 660 in 5 years.
II. The bank compound interest Annually.
1 2 3 4 5
114. What is the average weight of workers in a factory.
I. Their average weight 6 months back was 48 kgs
II. 5 workers have additionally joined the factory last month.
1 2 3 4 5
115. What is the 10th term of a given sequence?
I. The first two terms are 1, 0
II. The third term and the 4th term are -1, -2
1 2 3 4 5
116. Is the quadrilateral PQRS s square
I. PQ and Rs are parallel and equal
II. PR and QS are parallel and equal
1 2 3 4 5
117. Is PQ greater than 2
I. P is greater than 2/Q
II. Q is positive
1 2 3 4 5
118. What is the volume of a conical vessel ?
I. The perimeter of the base of vessel is 80 cm.
II. The volume of the vessel is ¼ the volume of a cylinder with twice the height and the same base
1 2 3 4 5
119. The ratio of the ages of a mother and a daughter is ?
I. Three years ago the ratio was 4 : 1
II. Four years hence, the ratio will be 3 : 1
1 2 3 4 5
120. What is the angle between the hands of a wall clock?
I. The time is between 6 and 7.
II. Half an hour back the angle was 0.
1 2 3 4 5
121. What is the radius of the wheel of a cart .
I. The number of revolution made by lit while travelling from x to y is 2000.
II. If it had traveled one more metre, it would have revolved 500 more times.
1 2 3 4 5
122. What is the length of the shadow cost by a person 4 ft tall standing near a pole.
I. The pole is 10 ft height
II. The person is 5 ft from the pole.
1 2 3 4 5
123. Is a > b
I. a / b = 6 / 5
II. a 2 > b 2
1 2 3 4 5
124. There are 10 students in Beverly high school. The average height of 10 students is 170 cm. What is the height of the new student ?
I. The minimum height for admission in the school is 160 cm.
II. After the new student joins the total height is 30 cm.
1 2 3 4 5
125. A box contains one rupee coins and 2 rupee coins. What is the total amount in the box if
I. The total number of coins is 100
II. If one rupee coins are replace by equal number of two rupee coins the amount will increase by Rs.10
1 2 3 4 5
126. Who receives the maximum if Rs 300 are divided among x, y, & z.
I. x receives 1 /5th of what Y & Z receive together.
II. Y receives 2 / 3 of what x and z receive together.
1 2 3 4 5
127. Is x = 3
I. x is a number such that x2 + 6x + 5 = 0
II. x is a number such that 2x2 + 3x - x = 0
1 2 3 4 5

128. If a is a positive is a prime number
I. a lies between 15 and 20.
II. A is odd number, not divisible by 5
1 2 3 4 5
129. How long did the minister’s speech last ?
I. He spoke at an average of 40 words for every 50 seconds
II. He would have spoken for 5 more minutes his speech rate would be 5 words less per minute
1 2 3 4 5
130. What is the percentage of post graduate employees in a company.
I. The ratio of post graduates to non post graduates is 2 : 3.
II. The number of non post graduates in 81.
1 2 3 4 5
The table below gives the number of days worked by employees of five grades A B C D & E in the different departments.
(No. Of days worked in a Year)

131. The number of days worked in Finance department was highest for grade
132. The grade which worked least in all the departments is
Grade A in Personnel Grade C in Finance Grade B in Marketing Grade E in Finance
133. Can we infer that production was throughout the year
Yes No Can’t say Need more data
134. If average day is 8 hours then the amount of work put by grade c is
1257 hrs. 10000 hrs 10056 hrs None of the above.
135. If we say production was non stop throughout the year without a single day’s break then the current year.
it is not a leap year it is a leap year cannot say for sure data is insufficient
136. If the number of holidays in the year was 15 then average absenteeism of grade E workers in finance during the year is
75 days 100 days 115 days 15 days
137. Across various departments the number of days put was most by grade
138. Across various departments the average number of days put was least by
139. The average number of days worked by Grade D is
299.25 318.25 320 327
140. The average number of days worked by Grade e is
308.25 318.25 327 341
141. The department which had the most in terms of employee attendance is
Finance Personnel Marketing Production
142. The department which had the most in terms of absenteeism is
Marketing Production Finance Personnel
143. The average number of days people across a;; grades worked in Personnel is
301 302 299 300
144. The average number of days people across all grades worked in Production is
333 329 331 332
145. If grade D got Rs.20 more per day than grade E average earning of Grade D workers over Grade E Workers
Rs.365 Rs.7200 Rs.7300 Rs.1000
The following is the result in the T.Y.B.Com exams in Colleges. These figures are the number of students who have passed in Percentage.

146. In which college is the number of girls who have passed is the highest.
A B C Need more data.
147. The number of student in TYBcom in college A is 600, one third of men being girls. The number of boys who have passed is
280 420 70 90
148. In College D the number of girls are twice the number of boys. The no.of girls more than the boys who have passed if there are 300 people is
75 70 80 160
149. Which of the following may be untrue
girls have performed in most colleges better than boys
girls have performed as well as boys in college E
boys have performed better in college D
boys in college D are more intelligent than girls
150. If the number of student who have appeared for the exam in college E is 200. The number of student failing is
80 160 40 20
151. In case of college D which of the following is possibly the number of boys.
58 59 60 61
152. If in college B the number of absentees were 20 boys then out of the 200 boys how many failed.
50 60 120 80
153. If in college A the number of boys are 200 and in college B they are 100 then the number of boys who have failed is
the same as those of B
is more by 20 than B
is less by 20 than B
None of the above.
154. The percentage of girls failing is the highest in
colleges A & B
Colleges B,D and E
Colleges A & C
Colleges A,B,E
155. The percentage of boys failing is the lowest in
College B
College B,C,E
College D
College A
Directions for questions 156 to 157: Given below is a capitalized pair of words which bear a certain relationship to each other. From the alternatives, choose the pair that does not bear the same relationship as the capitalized pair.
caterpillar : pupa larva : cocoon kernel : shell passenger : car
mother : spring sororal : fraternal father : son paternal : daughterly
Directions for questions 158 to 162: Fill in the blanks with the pair of words that best completes the sentence.
158. _______ arose within the government when it was found that one of the leader was ______.
joy.....dead grief..... guilty trouble.....guilty celebration.....ill
159. She says she is being ______ because she did not act according to the _____ of her superior.
160. Being the editor of such a good newspaper has many _____, but it has one_____. friends.....enemies joys.....downside
161. After nearly three decades in the industrial _____, Karnataka is back with a _____.
arena.....thought field.....agenda backwoods.....vengeance party.....bang.
162. I've been _____ of all sorts of things, _____, some not.
something new.....some hot
accused.....some true
Directions for questions 163 to 165:Read the following carefully and answer the questions that follow.
In the village of Shantinagar, all inhabitants always answer any question with two sentences, one of which is always true and the other always false.
While visiting the village, you find Shyam, Sunder, Mani near the village court. One of them is wearing a dhoti. Knowing that they were there to resolve a dispute over the ownership of some property, you ask them, "who got the land?". They answer as follows:
Shyam : "I got the chair. Mani is wearing a dhoti".
Sunder: "I am wearing a dhoti. I got the land".
mani : "I got the land. I am not wearing a dhoti".
163. Who is wearing a dhoti?
Mani Sunder Shyam None of them.
164. Who got the land?
Shyam Can't say Mani Sunder
On waking up the next morning, you find that your motor-cycle has been stolen. You question them(knowing that only one of them is guilty), and they reply as follows:
Shyam : "Sunder did not do it. I did not do it."
Sunder : "I did not do it. Mani did not do it."
Mani : "I did not do it. I do not know who did it."
165. Who stole the motor-cycle?
Can't say Mani Sunder Shyam
Directions for questions 166 to 170 : In each of the following questions one interrogative statements followed by two arguments,one beginning with ' yes ' and the other with ' no '. Mark:
(a), if only argument 1 is forceful
(b), if only argument 2 is forceful
(c), if both 1 and 2 are forceful
(d), if neither 1 nor 2 is forceful.
166. Will democracy survive in India?
1.Yes, because people in India are democratic in outlook.
2. No, because corruption in the working of the government has made the people lose faith in it.
1 2 3 4
167.Is mixed economy the best type of economy for India ?
1.Yes, because the competition between the public sector and private sector will benefit the public in many ways.
2. No, because public sector is a losing proposition, so it is a drain on the state exchequer.
1 2 3 4
168.Is it possible to make adult education movement in India a success?
1.Yes, because majority of the people in India are illiterate.
2.No, because people in India are so busy in earning their bread that they cannot spare time for education.
1 2 3 4
169. Should the post of governors be abolished in India?
1. Yes, because governors look to the interest of the central government only.
2.No, because Chief Ministers of Indian states come and go but the governor of the state remains a vital link with the centre.
1 2 3 4
170.Should all the colleges be taken over by the government ?
1. Yes, because private organizations run the college with motive earn profits.
2. No, because government undertakings become inefficient.
1 2 3 4
Directions for questions 171 to 175 : Find the odd one out from the group of four words.
171. Binoculars Mirrors Scissors Spectacles
172 Sonnet Haiku Limerick Epilogue
173. Skin Nails Eyes Nose
174. Mediocre Terrible Average Medium
175. Transmission Osmosis Transgression Infiltration
Directions for questions 176 to 180 : Fill in the blanks with the word or phrase that completes the sentence in a logical manner:
176. When I come face to face with you, we __________ in a very special manner.
pass collide communicate stand
177.Some guidelines to manage implementation get the managers to _______ in developing strategic communication.
participate understand hand grow
178.While opportunities in finance stay the same, those in marketing ___________, making it the hot choice.
go a step ahead also do the same have evolved further are attractive
179.Time flies when you are ______. Time drags when you have insomnia.
fat and heavy fast asleep happy on the move
180.A quiet note of _______ amidst the cacophony in consumer banking.
spirit noise dignity revelry
Directions for Qs 181-185
Read the following passage and answer the questions below
Human being is a singular creature. He has a set of gifts which make him unique among the animals: so that, unlike them, he is not figure in the landscape – he is a shaper of the landscape. In body and in mind he is the explorer of nature, the ubiquitous animal, who did not find but has made his home in every continent.
It is reported that when the Spaniards arrived overland at the Pacific Ocean in 1769 the California Indians used to say that all full moon the fish came and danced on these batches. And it is true that there is a local variety of fish, the grunion that comes up out of the water and lays its eggs above the normal high-tide mark. The females bury themselves tail first in the sand and the males gyrate round them and fertilize the eggs as they are being laid. The full moon is important, because it gives the time needed for the eggs to incubate undisturbed in the sand, nine or ten days, between these very high tides and the next ones that will wash the hatched fish out to seed again.
So millions of years of evolution have shaped the grunion to fit and sit exactly with the tides. But nature – that is, biological evolution – has not fitted man to any specific environment. On the contrary, by comparison with the grunion he has a rather crude survival kit; and yet- this is the paradox of the human condition – one that fits him to all environments. Among the multitude of animals which scamper, fly, burrow, and swim around us, human being is the only one who is not locked into his environment. His imagination, his reason, his emotional subtlety and toughness, make it possible for him not to accept the environment but to change it. And that series of inventions, by which man from age to age has remade his environment, is a different kind of evolution – not biological, but cultural evolution. I call that brilliant sequence of cultural peaks the ascent of Man.
Of course, it is tempting to a scientist – to hope that the most original achievement of the mind are also the most recent. And we do indeed have cause to be proud of some modern work. Think of the unraveling of the code of heredity in the DNA spiral; or the work going forward on the special faculties of the human brain. Think of the philosophic insight that saw into the theory of relativity or the minute behavior of matter on the atomic scale.
Yet to admire only our own successes, as if they had no past (and were of the future)Would make a caricature of knowledge. For human achievement, and science in particular, is not a museum of finished constructions. It is a progress, in which the first experiments of the alchemists also have a formative place, and the sophisticated arithmetic that the Mayan astronomers of Central America invented for themselves independently of the Old World. The stone work of Machu Picchu in the Andes and the geometry of the Alhambra in Moorish Spain seem to us, five centuries later, exquisite works of decorative art. But if we stop our appreciation there, we miss the originality of the two cultures that made them. Within their time, they are constructions as arresting and important for their peoples as the architectures of DNA for us.
181. The writer’s view that man did not find but his made his home means that
other animals has no choice but to live wherever they got protection.
man’s dominance of nature was so complete that he could decide where to build his home.
man has learnt to co-exist with other animals.
all of the above
182. The writer cites the example of the grunion’s reproduction method to stress that
the natural law of reproduction of species is at work everywhere.
evolution helps every species adapt itself to fit into its environment.
the law of survival of the fittest operates even at the lowest level.
evolution took the first steps on the beaches of the world.
183. According to the author, the paradox of man’s condition is that
his crude survival kit has not helped man to fit into some kind of environment.
with his crude survival kit, man has developed capacity to fit into all type of environment.
Man cannot scamper, fly or burrow, yet he has locked himself into his Environment.
all of the above.
184. Why do we hope that the most original achievement of the mind are also the most recent ?
We are too prejudiced to admit the past achievement of our forefathers.
We believe that the earlier inventions were too primitive to be of any use to be of any use to us.
We do not realize that progress is a matter of continuity, so we view every past achievement in isolation from our own.
We regard progress as mere change.
185. Man does not accept the environment but becomes the shaper of the landscape of:
his love for exploration
his ability to plan, imagine, and put different talents together.
the genetic change that he introduced in his own species.
all of the above
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